The Interceltic Festival of Lorient , abbreviated as FIL , is a festival of Celtic music held every year in Lorient , in Brittany . It brings together dozens of groups from countries and regions of Celtic origin for ten days during the first fortnight of August.
The festival originated in the reception in 1971 of a competition of bagadoù . He turned to interceltism the following year to distinguish himself from other festivals in the region, and then opened up to other forms of cultural expressions later on. From the end of the 1990s, it became one of the most important French festivals for its number of visitors, welcoming up to 800,000 visitors, including 115,000 paying admissions in 2010 .
Its programming is primarily focused on concerts and dance performances. It also hosts musical competitions, such as the national championship of bagadoù , dances like those of the federation War ‘l their and competitions specific to the festival. Other activities such as parades or cultural discovery activities are also organized.
It has an important influence on its territory , both economically and in the media. The festival also acts as a cultural actor, allowing the creation and diffusion in the field of Breton and Celtic cultures .
Several Breton music festivals developed in Lower Brittany during the post-war period . In Quimper , the Cornwall Festival , created in 1923 was relaunched in 1948 1 , and in Brest , the Bodadeg ar Sonerion (BAS) created in 1953 the International Festival of bagpipes to celebrate its tenth anniversary 2 . However, following the redevelopment of the castle square where the Brest festival is held and the resulting conflict between the town hall of Brest and theBodadeg ar Sonerion , the association is looking for a new place to set up its competition and the cities of Nantes and Saint-Malo declare themselves interested 3 .
In Lorient , the union of tradesmen and industrialists and the Brizeux circle launched a “Triumph of the Duchess Anne d’Armorique” in 1953 . It unites fourteen bagadoù and thirty-three circles four years in succession before its disappearance 4 . In 1969 , is launched the “Festival of the ports of Breton” by the committee of the festivals of the city and this one unites thirty bagadoù and circles 5 . When the Bodadeg ar Sonerion seeks to relocate its festival, several of its managers who come from the region of Lorientintervene in order for the latter to settle there. An agreement is reached between the city’s political leaders and the president of BAS Polig Monjarret 3 .
When the city of Brest wishes to stop this festival, its founder Polig Monjarret proposes to take it back to the President of the Festival Committee of Lorient, Pierre Guergadic, who accepts it. After a successful test edition under the name of “Fête des Ports”, in 1970 , the city of Lorient hosted the event 3 .
The first edition of what is now known as the “Bagpipe Festival” is held at the beginning of the month,and is held over three days 6 . The final of the bagadoù championship attracts nearly a thousand spectators 7 and a parade gathering thirty circles and a fortnight of bagadoù attracts him some 30 000 spectators 8 . Other activities such as a daily fest noz, night tours of the harbor or cotriades are organized and a concert featuring Gilles Servat , Alan Stivell or Dubliners held 7 . Experience is then considered a success and the festival is extended 9 .
It is decided for the 1972 edition to turn to interceltism in order to stand out from the Cornouaille Festival of Quimper 9 . The name of “Festival of Lorient Bagpipes” is chosen the same year 10 and new nations arrive over the years: Galicia sends its first delegation in 1976 11 and the Isle of Man in 1977 12 . The other delegations increased the number of participants: the Scots were 70 in 1972 10 , 75 in 1975 11 and 150 in 197611 . The Irish rose from 60 in 1972 10 to 150 in 1976 11 and the Welsh from some singers 10 to 50 participants 11 on the same dates. The duration of the festival lengthens at the same time and it reaches its definitive form in 1976 by passing to ten days 11 .
The nature of the activities presented is determined at this time. Sports tournaments between several delegations have been organized since 1972 10 . Concours de chant Breton are organized from 1973 onwards under the Kan ar Bobl 13 . The Moustoir stadium was used from 1974 onwards for a dance show integrating light games 14 and, since 1976 , shows were programmed in the outlying districts of the city 15 . The same year is organized the first exhibition of Breton arts and the first beginnings of a festival off develop 11, While previous years have seen the establishment of exhibitions Breton costumes , plays 16 or even a book fair 14 . The latter hosts in 1977 Pierre-Jakez Hélias and Xavier Grall 17 and Joan Baez participated in the festival the following year 18 .
The festival takes the name of “Interceltic Festival” from 1979 19 and continues to develop. In 1980 , a live webcast is organized by the television channel France 3 20 and in 1982 the festival for the first time gets a grant from the Ministry of Culture 21 . This grant is followed in 1985 with the visit for the first time a culture minister in the person of Jack Lang , came to announce the authorization of the bilingual signs 22 . New countries are invited, Asturias in 1987as eighth Celtic countries 23 or the Australia in 1985 for its large Irish diaspora 24 .
The activities of the festival are diversified. The bagpipe Macallan trophy was created in 1980 25 and a contest gaïta from 1986 26 . In 1989 two new competitions together for one the pipe bands and the other couples ringers 27 . Large shows are set up at the same time, with the Nights of the sea , organized in 1989 to 1993 in the port area, replaced from 1993 by Magical nights in the Stade du Moustoir 28 .
The festival multiplies its settlements within the city. The pub , concert space is set up from 1981 29 . The Celtic village , place of restoration, was instituted in 1983 30 . Other spaces in the city are used: the Espace Kergroise , a marquee with a capacity of 6,000 seats, is put into service from 1984 in the port area 31 and the Carnot room is used for festoù-noz from the same year 32 . Club K , which brings together companies and associations, was set up in 199333 .
Outdoor recognition of the festival increased during the 1990s . While it was frequented by 25% foreigners in the late 1980s, 34 the European Commission ranks it among the thirteen most important European festivals in 1996 , one of the three French festivals to be distinguished in this way with those of Bourges and Avignon 35 . To enable wider dissemination of festival images, a production company founded in 1994 and produces fourteen hours of video to a dozen channels worldwide 36 . The grand parade is broadcast two years in a row byTF1 in 2000 and 2001 , reaching 50% audience share and reaching six million people on the first broadcast. Also in 2001 , the launching of the festival was carried out by astronauts from the International Space Station , via a live transmission from it 37 , following contacts made during the 1997 mission of Jean-Loup Chrétien in the station MIR 38 .
The number of competitions increased with the establishment of the first veuze and pibroc’h competitions in 1997 39 , followed by the creation of a kitchen music competition n 1 in 2000 40 . A master class offering refresher courses for several instruments was introduced in 1997, 39 while a musical creation such as Hirio , born in 1994 , developed at FIL before making world tours until 2000 41 . In 1996 , a cabaret space was created, active until 200542 . The space of Kergroise is restarted in1998 after eleven years without use. The same year a lounge area is set up with a different theme each day 43 . The origin of the groups is more diverse, the Los Angeles Scotts and City of Wellington pipe bands participate in the 2000 edition 44 , while the Tokyo Pipe band participates in the 1994 festival 41 .
The festival’s growth continues with the setting up of events outside Brittany . The management of the stadium of France uses the festival to ensure the feast of St. Patrick ‘s Day in 2002 . The experience is extended for a total of four performances given in this very stadium until 2004 45 and led to the establishment of a company, I3C, festival subsidiary designed to handle this type of events 46 . Other shows are given in the rest of France, including four at the Zenith in Paris . One of these shows, under the name of Celtica, gives rise to four performances at the Beaujoire stadium in Nantes and two at the stage of the road from Lorient to Rennes . The show Koroll is played in Lille and Lyon 47 and a Breizh Parade takes place in 2007 on the Avenue des Champs – Élysées during the Breizh Touch 48 . However, IC3 was liquidated in 2008 because of its losses 48 and the implementation of this type of show was only relaunched in 2011with the programming of a feast of St. Patrick’s Day at the Stade de France in 2012 49 .
In the early years of 2010 , the festival gathered in the center of the city, a wharf being allocated to each Celtic nation, while independent groups play on the cafe terraces. Other notorious places in Lorient are also invested: the stadium of the Moustoir (for Interceltic Nights) or the slipway of the fishing port, where two nights end the festival with a series of concerts. A tent-dome is acquired by the festival in 2011 to accommodate up to 1,400 people for various events and is reused since 50 .
About 120 stage shows are organized during the festival, of which 60% are free 51 . The Magic Nights, renamed Inter-Celtic Nights since 2011 , take place several evenings of the week for more than two hours at the Moustoir stadium . They bring together traditional outfits in groups of more than 300 musicians, ending with a fireworks 52 . Several of the most important concerts of the festival are organized on the fishing port of Keroman ; the cotriade , seafood- based meal set up on large tables and animated by musical groups, takes place on the first Friday and brings together nearly 1,200 festival-goers53 , while the night of the fishing port offers on the slipway concerts of bands like The Cranberries in 2010 54 or Texas in 2011 55 . Finally, some places like the “quai de la Bretagne” welcome nearly a hundred artists in 10 days of festival 56 .
On the sidelines of the official festival has developed over the years a festival off. Bands play in day and evening in most bars downtown 57 .
Several competitions related to the bagpipes are organized during the duration of the event. The finals of bagadoù championship deem groups of first, second and fourth category during the first weekend of the festival 58 . A pipe bands competition is organized for him on the second weekend of the festival 59 and since 2000 a humorous competition of “kitchen music” opposes a dozen soloists from different countries 60 .
Groups of folk music also contribute during the entire festival, with a final where the best at the end of it 61 . The Kan ar Bobl that clash sees the Breton groups it was created at the festival in 1973 and remained until 1993 62 .
Bagpipe soloists are challenged in several competitions throughout the festival. The “Trophée MacCrimmon” brings together the players of great Scottish bagpipes , the “Trophy Botuha-Raud” concerns him the sounders of Breton music of less than 20 years and other trophies see them oppose the players of pibroc’h 63 or of gaita 64 . The other solo instruments like the harp also have their competition dedicated 65 .
Finally Celtic circles dance confederation War ‘s their engaging in assaults 66 and the festival organizes sports competitions Sailing, Golf, Running or even gouren 51 .
The “Grand Parade of the Celtic Nations” brings together about 3,500 musicians, singers and dancers in traditional costumes. On the first Sunday morning, the representatives of the various Celtic countries invited to parade for four hours, in a course starting on the course of Chazelles and ending at the stadium of Moustoir . This parade was broadcast on private or national TV channels such as TF1 or France 3 . Approximately 70,000 people attend it in the streets of Lorient , plus 10,000 paying visitors to Stade du Moustoir 67 .
The “triumph of the bell ringers” takes place on the first Sunday of the festival in the evening and brings together some sixty bagadoù which play in different places of the city before meeting in the vicinity of the great theater 68 . Finally, daily parades are organized throughout the day in the city center 69 .
|Acadia||2004 70 , 2012 70|
|Asturias||1998 71 , 2003 71 , 2013 72|
|Australia||2006 73 , 2016|
|Britain||1999 38 , 2010 , 2020 74|
|Scotland||1995 75 , 2007 73 , 2017 76|
|Galicia||1994 37 , 2001 37 , 2009 73 , 2019 74|
|Ireland||1996 35 , 2005 73 , 2014 77|
|Wales||1997 78 , 2002 79 , 2008 73 , 2018 74|
|Isle of man||2015 80|
|Other n 2||2000 44 , 2011 82|
Every year since 1994 , a Celtic nation is honored. The Galicia is the first to have benefited from this system in Year 83 . Since 1998 and the year of the Asturias , the invited delegation has a own marquee, as well as a greater visibility in the promotion made for the festival 43 .
Invited countries are responsible for organizing and funding this space, which doubles most of the time the budget allocated to their representation at the festival. The Scottish Government has disbursed 450,000 euros to its capital in 2007 84 and Acadia plans for publishing in 2012 a budget of 400,000 euros , doubling its usual expenses 85 .
The festival offers other types of cultural activities. Art exhibitions are organized, such as retrospectives on painters Jean-Pierre Vielfaure in 2000 86 , Micheau-Vernez in 2011 87, or regularly exhibitions of Breton costumes 88 . In the same spirit, traditional craftsmen have presented their know-how since 2011 89 .
The Carnot room hosts the daily festoù-noz 90 , some of which are broadcast live on the internet and followed by nearly 180,000 Internet users in 80 different countries 91 . It is possible to enroll in Breton language courses 92 or instrument classes in the form of master class 93 .
The presidency of the festival is first ensured by Pierrot Guergadic from the creation of the festival 94 until 1996 . There follows a period of instability. Guy Delion succeeded him in 1997 95 , but resigned in January 2001 following tensions with the director Jean-Pierre Pichard 96 . He was replaced as a transitional months by Jean-Michel Férézou 97 . Jacques-Charles Morice then held this position from 2001 to 2007 98 . Noël Couëdel took the lead in 2007 for a period of three years and was re-elected to the post in 2010for three additional years 99 . Guy Gestin succeeds him in100 .
Jean-Pierre Pichard was director of the festival from 1972 until 2007 , when he sold it to Lisardo Lombardía 73 .
The budget of the festival amounts to five million euros in 2010 . It is financed to the tune of 33% by the local authorities 101 , of which 11% by the Brittany region , 9% by the municipality of Lorient , 6.8% by the agglomeration of the country of Lorient , 3.2% by the council General of Morbihan and 2% by the State 102 . The ticket participates every year in the budget for a little over a million 103 .
Expenditures are made around four poles. In 2012, artistic expenses, including the stage technique, represent 43% of expenses. Technical, logistical and safety costs account for 23% of expenditure. The communication represents 8% of the budget and the functioning 26% of the budget 104 .
An endowment fund is set up by the festival in 2012, so as to enable individuals to contribute financially or companies operating in this 105 . It works on the principle of voluntary contributions or through the purchase of a badge which part of the profits are donated to the bottom 106 .
107 The Festival employs about 700 contractors and there are about forty different missions carried out by volunteers . These come from both the Lorient region and the rest of France. About 1 100 people participating in the festival through it in a dozen different services 51 , 450 for the single service control 108 .
Accommodation is provided for some artists and 1,100 people are accommodated every year. 800 beds are offered through 7 lycées lorientais partners and the rest by 20 hotels providers. The Festival feeds about 300 volunteers and up to 4 500 artists 109 ; in total, the Lycée Dupuy de Lome serves 34,000 meals for the duration of the festival 51 .
The association that manages the festival seeks to create economic spin-offs at the local level by favoring suppliers in the region. 83% of the 5 million euros of the annual budget is redistributed in Brittany . In addition, 700 people are hired on fixed-term contracts during the festival 101 .
Local businesses also benefit in a more indirect way: in 2010 , some bars or restaurants estimate 30% of their annual turnover during the festival. In the same year, the average daily budget of a festival-goer is estimated at 30 euros , ie a contribution of nearly 24 million euros in the local economy 101 .
The economic impact is also relayed by the “club K”, an economic village that serves as a link between Breton companies and companies from other regions present at the festival 110 . All the partners of the festival are automatically part of it, to which are added institutions paying a contribution. A total of 180 companies and institutions have thus joined in 2011 , each representing between 10 and 150 entities from all sectors 111 . Links have also been established between the “Club K” and similar entities in other festivals like the Breton maritime festivals Douarnenez to develop similar programs 112 .
The management of security during the festival is ensured by the use of reinforcements of men coming from inside and outside the region. In 2011 , 150 CRS were mobilized, including one company from Rennes and half from another from Dijon 113 ; late evening, up to 70 of them may be simultaneously mobilized 114 . 115 The festival also organizes a space reserved for the prevention of risks, in particular those related to noise and alcohol .
The sustainable development is at the festival since the early 2000s through a series of initiatives. In 2004 was established a solidarity village that brings together associations working in this field stands 116 . Beginning in 2005 , a reflection was initiated in conjunction with four other Breton festivals n 3 on the content of a charter for sustainable development and culminated in the establishment of this charter in 2007 . Selective sorting of waste is developed and in 2009, 20 tons , or 22% of the waste generated. The systematization of the reusable cup is carried out in 2000 115and the following year 350 000 of these cups are used 117 .
Public transport is also included in the festival at the city as the region 115 . The CTRL , Lorient transport company puts particular up additional lines to serve the adjacent cities in Lorient, on wider zones 118 . In addition, SNCF offers, as for most Breton festivals, reduced prices on the journeys to the Lorient train station 119 .
The festival and its history mark the toponymy and decorations of the city. A statue representing the founder of the FIL, Polig Monjarret , is inaugurated on the square of the same name on120 , and the name of the first president of the Pierre-Guergadic festival is given to a street in Lorient in121 . Since the beginning of the 2000s , a roundabout bearing the name of the”invited” Celtic countryis inaugurated during the festival; the last one set up is Brittany , in 2010 , whereas this one is honored for the 40 th anniversary of the festival 122 . Since 2012 and the inauguration of a roundabout dedicated toNew Brunswick , regions in these countries are also being honored 123 .
Until 2010 , the festival attracts more visitors each year. The 2010 registered a peak attendance with 800,000 people, including 115,000 paying visitors 124 . The event “An dro the world” gathered some 4,500 dancers in the night of Saturday 14 to Sunday, which gave rise to the greatest year ever danced 125 .
|350 000 126||500 000 98||650,000 127||800,000 127||650 000 128||650,000 129||700 000 130||750,000 131||750,000 132|
|700,000 133 .||750,000 134 .||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
In 2010 , the FIL press office hosts seven news agencies, twenty-six print titles, twenty-three radios, nine television channels and thirty-three foreign media 101 , for a total of just over 400 journalists 135 . The broadcast of the big parade by France 3 in 2011 brought together nearly 2 million viewers, or 20.3% of the audience, which allowed the channel to record its best audience since 2006 and its best share of the audience since 2005 136 .
An impact study in 2011 shows that the articles on the festival lead to a valuation of more than four million euros in advertising spaces 101 . In total, approximately 1,300 publications in various media have been recorded in the same year 135 .
The festival is also the breeding ground for a form of lobbying . The first director of the structure integrates and becomes president of the French club of Arts and Entertainment of the Ministry of Culture in 1990 , allowing it to raise awareness about the festival in France and abroad 137 .
Since the arrival of Jean-Yves Le Drian at the head of the region in 2004 , the cultural events financed by the regional council must give him a set of specifications every three years. This one concerns the activities related to the creation in the field of Breton culture 98 , as well as the status of the Breton language within it. The festival is thus a signatory of the charter Ya d’ar brezhoneg and develops initiatives to promote this language 138
The festival also serves as a support for cultural creations n 4 . This contribution is the result of work of its first director, Jean-Pierre Pichard , who from the first editions is to establish the festival as a creation of the new Breton music 139 . When editing in 2011 , ten new productions have been presented 140 . Since the 1970s, the event has also been a place for the development of an interceltic culture 141 and contributes to the qualitative improvement of Celtic music 142 ; some artists like Carlos Núñez were discovered by the festival143 . It also allows an opening to other cultures, to the various musical currents and to the new technologies (video, laser) 144 .
Several artists use the recordings of their festival concerts to publish live albums . Tri Yann is released The 40 Years Concert in 2012 (the concert took place during the 2011 edition ). Denez Prigent , meanwhile, spell Live holl a-gevret! in 2002 after a 2001 concert , The Newfoundland release them A summer night in 2006 following a concert in the same year. The festival also publishes compilations each year featuring pieces from the heads of posters of the upcoming edition 145and Bodadeg ar Sonerion publishes it records Contest 1 st class 146 .
The organization of shows outside the cultural boundaries of Britain , as in Paris , also contributes to the cultural influence of the city and region 147 .